A basic stainless steel has a ‘ferritic’ structure and is magnetic, formed from the addition of chromium – it can be hardened through the addition of carbon, making it ‘martensitic’. However, chromium containing stainless steel without nickel or low nickel is usually a martensitic stainless steel, such as Cr12. One of the features that characterize stainless steels is a minimum 10.5% chromium content as the principal alloying element. Four major categories of wrought stainless steel, based on metallurgical structure, are austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, and precipitation hardening. The ferritic stainless steels contain up to some 27% chromium and are used in applications where good corrosion/oxidation resistance is required but in service loads are not excessive, e.g. Before determining this, it is good to understand what makes a grade of stainless steel magnetic or not. The martensitic grades contain up to 18% chromium and have better weldability and higher strengths than the ferritic grades. Stainless steel is about 200 times more resistant to corrosion than mild steel. Magnetic properties of some ferritic stainless steels are listed in Table 1. Martensitic Stainless Steel. Martensitic stainless steels These stainless steels are ferritic steels which one reheated (only ferritic steels which has less than 27% of chromium and a maximum of carbon 0,15%). Martensite has been a key element of quenched steel for hundreds of years, but was officially named in the 20th century after the metallurgist Adolf Martens (1850 - 1914). These are formed from the addition of chromium and can be hardened through the addition of carbon (making them 'martensitic') and are often used in cutlery. flue gas ducting, vehicle exhausts, road and rail vehicles. AK Steel offers a range of martensitic stainless alloys which contain 11 – 17% chromium (Cr) with 0.15 – 0.63% carbon (C). All stainless steels grades with the exception of the austenitic grades are also magnetic – all ferritic grades (eg 430, AtlasCR12, 444, F20S), all duplex grades (eg 2205, 2304, 2101, 2507), all martensitic grades (eg 431, 416, 420, 440C) and all precipitation hardening grades (eg 630/17-4PH). It’s important to understand when selecting a grade of stainless steel (SS) for your application or prototype, if the material needs to have magnetic properties or not. Stainless steel is a word that comprehends a huge range of steels with quite different properties, microstructures and compositions. A basic stainless steel has a 'ferritic' structure and is magnetic. Martensitic grades are magnetic in both the annealed and hardened (heat treated) condition. 420 stainless steel “Blade grade” martensitic steel, the earliest stainless steel, similar to Brinell high chromium steel. Magnetic Properties of Stainless Steel Ferritic stainless steel, martensitic stainless steel, duplex stainless steel and most precipitation hardening stainless steel are usually classified as 'magnetic' since they exhibit a strong response to a hand-held magnet. Understanding Magnetic properties of 304 and 316 stainless steel.

Martensitic stainless steel is a type of steel having a magnetic, corrosion resistant and hardenable crystalline structure after heat treating. Precipitation hardening is achieved by the addition of copper, molybdenum, aluminium and titanium either singly or in combination. They are magnetic and their corrosion resistance is not as good as austenitic stainless steel. The martensitic grades contain up to 18% chromium and have better weldability and higher strengths than the ferritic grades. The family of precipitation hardening stainless steels can be divided into three main types - low carbon martensitic, semi-austenitic and austenitic - typical compositions of some of the steels are given in Table 1. 416 stainless steel. 430 stainless steel Stainless steel can be divided into five groups: Austenitic : Austenitic steels form the largest portion of the global stainless steel market and few of its versatile usages would be food processing equipment, kitchen utensils and medical equipment. The magnetic properties of stainless steels vary considerably, ranging from paramagnetic, non-magnetic, in fully austenitic grades to hard or permanent magnetic behavior in the hardened martensitic grades.
Austenitic (non-magnetic) Stainless Steels. Martensitic Stainless Steels.

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